Suggested citation format:
Ciolek, T. Matthew. 1999-present. From Afrosiab to Zucchabar: A Gazetteer of Georeferenced Nodes
of Long-Distance Communication Routes. Old World Traditional Trade Routes (OWTRAD) Project.
Canberra: www.ciolek.com - Asia Pacific Research Online. Version 10.2 (Jul 2012).
Old World Trade Routes (OWTRAD):
Dr T. Matthew Ciolek
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies,
From Afrosiab to Zucchabar: A Gazetteer of Georeferenced Nodes
of Long-Distance Communication Routes
v. 10.1 (Jan 2007)
Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia
Page created: 30 Aug 1999. Last updated: 13 Jul 2012
This document provides geographical coordinates for data points from the Old
World Trade Routes (OWTRAD) project.
- a research in progress -
I dedicate this work to the memory of my father, Gerard Ciolek (1909-1966).
He was a truly remarkable and truly delightful man.
|| OWTRAD Home Page
|| Notation System
|| OWTRAD Dromographic Digital Data Archives
|| Catalogue of Georeferenced Caravanserais/Khans
|| Catalogue of Georeferenced Travel/Trade Structures
|| Trade Routes Glossary
|| Sources and Bibliography
OWTRAD Gazetteer of georeferenced nodes
(settlements, oases, river and mountain crossings, etc.)
of long-distance communication routes
The Gazetteer's Size and Structure
Edition v. 10.1 (Jan 2006) contains information about 18,025
variant names of 4,265 places in Asia, Europe and Africa.
The OWTRAD Gazetteer attempts to collect information on
A handful of long/lat values in our gazetteer which currently are set to zero, will be
gradually researched and determined in
the subsequent editions of the OWTRAD Gazetteer.
(i) node's variant name - VARIANT_name;
(ii) node's standard geographic name - name;
(iii) node's type (eg. settlement, river, pass, etc.) - TYPE_OF_NODE;
(iv) the ISO 3666
code of the modern country in which the node in question is situated - COUNTRY;
(v) electronic or paper source of
the variant name - SOURCE_OF_VARname;
(vi) decimal longitude values - LONG;
(vii) decimal latitude values - LAT;
(viii) electronic or paper source of
the long/lat values (TGN, i.e. Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names;
ADL, i.e. Alexandria Digital Library Gazetteer, etc.) - SOURCE_OF_COORDINATES;
(ix) Certainty/accuracy of the long/lat values - LONG/LAT_PRECISION;
(x) Certainty/accuracy of the link between the variant place name and the long/lat values - name/PLACE_IDENTITY;
(xi) Node's OWTRAD database id number - DATAID.
The Gazetteer's Coverage
This list does not aim to cover all the theoretically possible
geographic locations known in the Old World's history. Instead, it
summarises information pertaining only to the nodes mentioned in the
OWTRAD data sets. This means that this gazetteer is
not a general purpose, all-types-of-queries tool. To the
contrary, this is a specialist tool which aims to support closely each
of the consecutive stages of the OWTRAD project.
Corrections to this Gazetteer
Addenda and corrections to the OWTRAD gazetteer were kindly provided by:
Jose Borbinha (Lisbon, Portugal),
Kevin Duffy (Sydney, Australia),
Dr Ian Johnson (U. Sydney, Australia),
Karen Kemp (U. Redlands, CA, US),
Julia Lansberry (Yuma, AZ, US),
Jorge Oliveira (Portugal),
Prof. J. B. Owens (Idaho State U., US),
Dr Susan Whitfield (IDP, British Library, UK)
Sources: Major Online Lat/Long Gazetteers
- Alexandria Digital Library Gazetteer (ADL, US)
contains: NIMA Gazetteer (the GEOnet Names Server), set of countries and U.S.
counties, set of U.S. topographic map quadrangle
footprints, set of volcanoes, and set of earthquake
epicenters. The GNIS data has been partly added to the
collection. Currently, there are approx. 4.4 million
entries. In process: USGS Gazetteer (GNIS) and GeoRef
placenames from their thesaurus. A very useful system, however, not always readily accessible]
- DIGMAP Gazetteer [of Historical Placenames] (IST - Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon, Portugal)
[Provides information on the location of historical placenames]
- EarthSearch.net (www.earthsearch.net, US)
[Geographic and Geospatial Information Search
International, Excluding the United States and its Territories. Data Sources
* CIA World Fact Book Data
* Geographic Data for International Cities, Landmarks, etc
* Geographic Data for US Cities, Landmarks, etc
* Earth Images
- FuzzyG: The Fuzzy Gazetteer (Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC), IT)
dmaweb2.jrc.it/services/fuzzyg/default.asp & isodp.fh-hof.de/fuzzyg/query/
[The Fuzzy Gazetteer enables you to find geographic features even when you do not know their exact names.
A list of similar names is returned, together with their coordinates, web-linked to the JRC Digital Map Archive of the European Commission.
Searching 7,205,433 place names world-wide.]
- Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN, US)
[A structured vocabulary developed primarily for art history,
archeology, history and geography. About 1 million names. Several of these names are unique to the TGN]
- German Space Operations Center Gazetteer (GSOC, Germany)
[A country-by country gazetteer based on GSOC-enhanced data
from US Geological Survey (USGS) and The National Imaging and Mapping Agency (NIMA).
About 2 million names. A fast system.]
- GEOnet Names Server (NIMA, US)
[The National Imagery and Mapping Agency's (NIMA) database
of foreign geographic feature names. Approximately 20,000 of the database's 3.5 million features are updated monthly
with names information approved by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names. A very useful system. It also
serves GIS-ready objects]
- Maplandia.com - Google Maps World Gazetteer (www.maplandia.com, US)
[Searchable world gazetteer based on Google Maps. Comprehensive online satellite imagery for more than 2 000 000 places world-wide.]
- SatelliteViews.net (www.satelliteviews.net, US)
[A visual gazetteer of over 5.9 million natural and man-made features, together with their long/lat coordinates [in decimal degrees] extracted from Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) databases, for each country of the world. The covered features include details of ** Cities or Communities ** Administrative entities and divisions ** Spot Feature (man-made features) [e.g. ANS - ancient site * BDG - bridge * BLDG - building(s) * CSTL - castle * FRM - farm * FT - fort * GDN - garden(s) * HLT - halting place * MKT - market * ML - mill(s) * MLWTR - water mill * MNAU - gold mine(s) * MNCU - copper mine(s) * MNFE - iron mine(s) * MNPB - lead mine(s) * MNQR - quarry(-ies) * MSQE - mosque * MSTY - monastery * PAL - palace * RHSE - resthouse [i.e. caravansarai] * RUIN - ruin(s) * SHPF - sheepfold * SHRN - shrine * TMB - tomb(s) * WALLA - ancient wall] ** Land Resources [e.g. * GAP - gap * GRGE - gorge(s) * PASS - pass] Water Resources [e.g. * CNL - canal * CNLA - aqueduct * CNLSB - underground irrigation canal(s) * HBR - harbor(s) * RSVT - water tank * SPNG - spring(s) * STM - stream * WAD - wadi * WLL - well * WLLS - wells * WTRC - watercourse * WTRH - waterhole(s)] ** Roads or Railroads; ** Areas; ** Vegetation]
- THDL Gazetteer of Tibet and the Himalayas (Tibetan & Himalayan Digital Library, U.Virginia, US)
["[P]rovide[s] information about all varieties of places in Tibet and the Himalayas, in past and present times - nations, provinces, counties, monasteries, villages, mountains, natural regions and more.
The current 2.0 release includes administrative units in contemporary China that have ethnic Tibetan populations, with detailed information only for the subunits of the Tibet Autonomous Region. We are now working on release 3.0 which will include details for all five provinces in China with Tibetan populations, and all politicial districts of Nepal as well. In the subsequent phase we will begin to incorporate our extensive data on Tibetan monasteries."]
- Tageo.com GPS city index & satellite map (www.tageo.com, US)
[A database of geographic coordinate information and KML markup
Tageo.com provides information about 2,667,417 cities in 193 countries. Information is dervied from
the NlMA GE0net Names Server]
- Worldwide Directory of Cities and Towns: Global Gazetteer (Falling Rain Genomics, Inc., US)
[A directory of 2,880,000+ of the world's contemporary cities and towns, sorted by
country and linked to a scalable map of the region around each town.]
- Austin, Robert F. 1983. A Historical Gazetteer of Southeast Asia [a preliminary edition] (U. Michigan, US) [WARNING! a 32MB file]
118 pp. Department of Geography University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA. Library of Congress Identification Number DCLC 8622956-B. Published online as 'Monograph Four', by the Institute of Mathematical Geography, Ann Arbor, MI 48104.
[One very long (32 MB) PDF file with a facsimile of a typescript document compiled by Robert Austin. The gazetteer gives geographical coordinates of Southeast Asian placenames together with references to their variant names as they have appeared in historical and literary documents. The gazetteer also provides an extensive bibliography of sources.]
Sources: Minor Online Lat/Long Gazetteers
- Demographic Yearbook 1995 (United Nations Statistics Division)
[An on-line browsable listing of worldwide capital cities and
cities of 100,000 and more inhabitants. It gives a current population
estimate and a lat/long point location. The cities have been
georeferenced using coordinate information from the US National
Imagery and Mapping Agency's (NIMA) database]
- East Himalayan Gazetteer (EHGAZ)
[Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, UK provides an
on-line gazetteer of 5,000 plant collecting localities in East Nepal,
Sikkim, Darjeeling District, Bhutan and the Chumbi Valley (Tibet).
Site contents: Introduction, Gazetteer, Bibliography]
- Wa Area [Burma/Myanmar, Yunnan] Online Gazetteer
[A gazetteer of
towns, villages, geographical features; together with their various current and past names (in Chinese, Burmese, Wa, Lao, etc), and their lat/long coordinates.]
Sources: Commercial Online Lat/Long Gazetteers
- The Global Gazetteer
[over 2,500,000 place names throughout the world
enriched with additional geographic and demographic data]
Sources: Paper-based Lat/Long Gazetteers
Finally, sites not listed in the above gazetteers need to be
defined manually using lat/long values calculated from relevant large-scale maps.
- Gazetteers of the World and Beyond (National Library of Australia, Australia)
[A list of gazetteers covering material held in the National Library Map Section as well as links to gazetteers available on the internet. The list enumerates the following categories of resources:
Web-accessible product freely available;
Web-accessible product available in NLA Map Reading Room only;
Networked CD-ROM title available in reading rooms only;
Standalone product available only in the NLA Map Reading Room;
Microfiche, NLA Map Reading Room;
Reference Collection, NLA Map Reading Room.]
Also, if the required information is not available online, it can, in principle, be
located in such gazetteer books as:
- Seltzer (1962) and his The Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World [Contents: about 159,000 entries,
4,500 of which have lat/long coordinates];
[Now available online for registered users as The Columbia Gazetteer of the World Online (http://www.columbiagazetteer.org/)]
- Lloyd's Maritime Atlas (1964) [Contents: lat/long list over 5,070 ports and shipping places of the
- "The Times" Index-Gazetteer of the World (1965) [Contents: approx. 345,000 lat/long locations];
- International Geographic Encyclopedia and Atlas (1979) [Contents: 25,000 entries + index to the Atlas lat/long coordinates for approx. 14,300 locations];
- Willett (1984) The Prentice Hall American World Atlas [Contents: two indices - USA (about 29,000 lat/long locations) and the rest of the world
- Rigby Publishers' The Great Geographical Atlas (1984) [Contents: approx. 65,600 lat/long locations];
Copyright (c) 1999 - present by T. Matthew
OWTRAD materials and data sets may be distributed only subject to
the terms and conditions set forth in the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 2.5 License.
Please direct comments, questions or
requests about this license policy to firstname.lastname@example.org.
visitors to www.ciolek.com since 08 May 1997.