Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia

ANU E-Commerce/E-Publishing Issues

by Dr T. Matthew Ciolek

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8. The Electronic Commerce

Electronic commerce is a business activity based on online acceptance and processing of orders. (Nemzow 1966, Yesil 1997, Banaghan 1997).

In early 1997 there were over 3 million web sites. Less than 10% of those sites did conduct online operations integrated with online collection of money (Yesil 1997:xiv). There are a number of approaches to an online business:

The money can be collected online in a variety of ways. The choice of charging technique is important to one's operating costs. According to statistics world-wide, 80% of recurring operational costs of a telecom company is related to the billing system.

In the first six months of 1996 investors poured more than US$2.1 billion into cyberspace companies in 67 separate financial deals (Yesil 1997:x) involving:

Simultaneously the size of online markets kept growing. Web-based shopping starts generating large sums of money (Yesil 1997:2):

A the same time, Yesil (1997:xi) compares the Internet to a telephone network, and a web-site to a phone combined with an answering machine. Just because there are millions of people connected to the same telephone network it does not mean they all will call any particular number (web-site), and even if a percentage of people do so, it does not mean that they will buy things and leave the operator with any profit.

In the remainder of this report I shall focus on Internet sites specializing in the sale of electronic information

9. Types of E-Commerce Activities

However, apart from traditionally successful online trade in (1) software, (2) games, (3) pornography, and (4) news, the sale of electronic information is not a lucrative proposition.

Very few businesses can, in fact, support online sales of electronic information (as opposed to sales of other online commodities):

It appears, therefore, that the overwhelming bulk of the revenue of sites selling electronic information comes from other online activities. These include:

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10. Is E-publishing Worth The Effort?

An answer to this question depends not only on the available data but also on the person who asks it. People, on the whole, can be divided into two large categories:

Therefore, the final verdict on what is valuable, useful or important is very much a matter of one's temperament and value system.

However, if we put immortality considerations aside and focus solely on financial matters, we can muster the following observations:

These observations are also backed by Peter White and Susan Ming's La Trobe University report on "Making Money for the Web? - Business Models for Online News" (summarized in Hilvert 1997b). The authors conclude, on the basis of a review of 1700 professional Web publications, that:

Finally, it may be argued that electronic publishing is a legitimate or even valuable activity because it:

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11. E-Publishing and E-Commerce: Current Concerns

Apart from addressing the questions of an appropriate business model and of the validity of electronic publishing, each institution needs to be aware of the overall context in which E-Publishing/E-Commerce takes place:


There are other issues to be tackled:


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12. ANU: External Factors

13. ANU: Internal Problems and Issues









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14. ANU Electronic Publishing: Possible Strategies

Putting the ANU's external and internal environments aside, we can now look at the courses of action which are potentially open to the University:

Table 11
ANU Electronic Publishing Options

ANU owned operation
(in house writing)
ad hoc
ad hoc
ad hoc
ad hoc
ANU owned operation
(in house writing)
external one or more agencies
external one or more agencies
external one or more agencies
external one or more agencies
ANU owned operation
(in house writing)
ANU owned operation
(in house editing)
external one or more agencies
external one or more agencies
external one or more agencies
ANU owned operation
(in house writing)
external one or more agencies
ANU owned operation
(in house publishing)
external one or more agencies
external one or more agencies
ANU owned operation
(in house writing)
ANU owned operation
(in house editing)
ANU owned operation
(in house publishing)
external one or more agencies
external one or more agencies
ANU owned operation
(in house writing)
ANU owned operations
(in house editing
in house publishing)
external one or more agencies
external one or more agencies
ANU owned operation
(in house writing)
ANU owned operation
(in house editing)
ANU owned operation
(in house publishing)
ANU owned operation
(in house digital conversion)
external one or more agencies
ANU owned operation
(in house writing)
ANU owned operations
(in house editing +
in house publishing +
in house digital conversion)
external one or more agencies
ANU owned operation
(in house writing)
ANU owned operation
(in house editing)
ANU owned operation
(in house publishing)
ANU owned operation
(in house digital conversion)
ANU owned operation
(in house cybershop)
ANU owned operation
(in house writing)
ANU owned operations
(in house editing + in house publishing +
in house digital conversion +
in house cybershop)


These seven types of scenarios are equally applicable to the publishing activities of

and may be a way of handling both small scale projects (e.g. a database, or electronic journal) and large scale involvements such as placing online an entire publication series or the output of a whole department.

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15. ANU Electronic Publishing: Optimal Strategies

As it has been already noted, the options open to The Australian National University are constrained by a number of factors.

Nevertheless, if a decision is made that it is important that the ANU maintains and increases its placement on the Internet, then such decision needs to be implemented speedily, easily, and with a minimum of financial effort and managerial fuss. If this is going to be the case, then, from political, organizational and financial points of view:

is the optimal (= simplest, quickest and most secure) option.

Moreover, it offers a clear upgrade path to Scenario # 6, or even Scenario #7, should these upgrades be justified by any future improvement to the ANU's political, legal and economic circumstances.

16. ANU Electronic Publishing: Possible Work Alliances

Scenario Number 5 offers a clear-cut division of roles:

To use a homely, low-tech comparison, Scenario 5 specifies that the ANU owns the cow, the milk as well as the creamery, while others are simply hired to bottle the product and do the distribution.

The actual answer as to WHO could/should be providing the ANU with those external services depends on a number of not necessarily mutually compatible factors. These, briefly, are:

      [This section is given full treatment in the original Report of 7 Aug 1997]
      [This section is given full treatment in the original Report of 7 Aug 1997]
      [This section is given full treatment in the original Report of 7 Aug 1997]
      [This section is given full treatment in the original Report of 7 Aug 1997]
      [This section is given full treatment in the original Report of 7 Aug 1997]
      [This section is given full treatment in the original Report of 7 Aug 1997]

In sum, there is a whole host of practical and interesting decisions awaiting to be made by the ANU management.

Hopefully, this document has succeeded in making them more clear-cut.

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17. Postscript - Berthier's Dilemma in March 1809

In early March 1809, Marshall Louis-Alexandre Berthier, acting on behalf of the temporarily absent Napoleon, repeatedly ordered 170,000 of the French troops to traverse back and forth the same 80-odd miles between Donauworth and Ratisbon. The reason for this spectacular waste of time, people and supplies was that the Marshall was unable, because of the lack of adequate intelligence, to decide which of the two cities should be the base for the forthcoming operations against the nearby 200,000 strong Austrian forces.

A military historian's comment on those bygone events is refreshing and useful, also in the context of current deliberations on the future of electronic publishing at the ANU.

MacDonnell caustically remarked (1996:162) that the great and hard-working Berthier, despite being the omniscient Chief-of-Staff and despite taking an intimate part in devising, planning and administering all of Napoleon's sensational military victories during the preceding 13 years

"... had not even grasped the ordinary common-sense principle that it is better for an army to do a wrong thing decisively and with energy, than to wobble about uncertainly between one policy and another."

* * *

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18. Notes and Calculations

Note 1

    Author: (a) collect information, (b) analyze it & interpret (c) prepare a document (a book, a database)
    Editor: (a) make the document structured, readable, consistent & complete, error free
  3. ORGANIZATION (making a marketable commodity)
    Publisher: (a) anticipate market changes and trends; (b) underwrite preparation & production; (c) make a contract with Author; (d) arrange editing of the document; (e) make the edited document a legal product; (f) relate it to other publications on the market; (g) arrange its production; (h) arrange its pricing; (i) arrange its marketing; (j) arrange its distribution; (k) return profit to Author; (l) enforce copyright
  4. PRODUCTION (making a master copy and, if necessary, replicas of the published work)
    • Printer (paper publication): (a) finalize pre-press work; (b) produce a master paper document; (c) print initial number of copies; (d) bind and package the copies; (e) produce any additional copies when necessary
    • Pagemaster (digital publication): (a) standardize disparate electronic formats of elements of the publication; (b) assemble component parts into a whole; (c) produce a master electronic document; (d) create initial number of copies; (e) produce any additional copies
  5. STORAGE (keeping publication ready for sale)
    • Warehouse, Bookshop (paper publications): maintain a supply of several physical copies
    • Cybershop (digital publication): maintain a master electronic copy
  6. SALE (making copies of publication available to public): (a) promote publications, attract customers (b) make publications accessible to customers (c) sales-person-customer contact (d) closing the deal (e) collect money from customers (f) return profit to Publisher
    • Bookshop (paper publications)
    • Cybershop (digital publication);
  7. DELIVERY (making copies of publication available to public)
    • Bookshop (paper publications)
      • deliver over the counter
      • deliver via post/courier
      • process the order
    • Digital Shop (digital publication)
      • deliver to the customer's computer screen
      • deliver to the customer's hard disk
      • send data to a remote printer specified by the customer
      • print the material (or write a CD-ROM) and deliver it via post/courier
      • process the order

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Note 2

In July 1997 NARU, RSPAS advertised a position of a Research Fellow: with a salary range $46,043 - $54,324 p.a.

Assuming 50 working weeks p.a.; 35 hrs of work/week; and the salary of $50,000 p.a. these figures translate into (50,000/1750) an average rate $28.6/hr.

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Note 3

The Asia Pacific Magazine (an RSPAS paper/electronic publication) pays $350-$400 per popular article of 3000 words, or approx. $0.12/word. Assuming that an average published page contains 550 words (Draper 1996:3) and the Asia Pacific Magazine rate of $0.12 per word is realistic, the cost (550 * $0.12) per page is $66.0

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Note 4

Commercial rates (MacLean 1997). Assumptions:

  • Fuji Xerox DocuTech technology, commercial digital quickprint shop, regardless of the number of shifts (1-3 shifts)
  • Minimum full recovery cost for Labour & Overheads $160/hr
  • Cost of paper 0.8 cent/page
  • The click-charge 0.8 cent/page
  • Average run 6000 copies
  • hence, the printing cost is 4.27 cents/page

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Note 5

  • Information sources: Greenhalgh (personal communication 1997), Clarke (personal communication 1997); ArtServe (1997)
  • ArtServe was established in early Jan 1994. By Feb 1997 it published electronically 27,000 images
  • DIGITIZATION costs of 27,000 images (excluding labour costs & overheads)
    • hardware (cameras, scanners, tape-drive, PCs) - $66,850;
    • software (scanning, processing, editing, formatting) - $20,000,
    • total costs: 86,850/27,000 = $3.22/per image
    • STORAGE costs of 27,000 images (excluding labour costs & overheads)
      set-up costs
      • cost of a 9Gb hard disk: $2,400
      • cost per Gigabyte $267.00
      • 19,000 images are about 10 Gb
      • hence, average image file is about 527Kb
      • 27,000 images are about 14.21Gb or $3800 for hardware
      • hence storage cost = $0.14/per image (527Kb)
      • hence storage cost = $0.34/per book of 300 pages (1275kb)
        for size of a 300 page book see Note 6

      maintenance costs

        - no information is currently available -

  • SALES + DELIVERY costs of 27,000 images (excluding labour costs & overheads)
    • hardware (server, CDROM players, drives and writers) - $61,100
    • software (indexing, browsing, zoom, shopping basket, cd-writing, charging, traffic logging) - $120,000
    • hence total costs are $181,100 or, $6.71 per image

    In sum, the breakdown of costs are as follows

    Conversion              = $3.22 / image (527Kb)        32%
    Storage                 = $0.14 / image (527Kb)         1%
    Sales + Delivery        = $6.71 / image (527Kb)        67%
    TOTAL                   = $10.07 / image (527Kb)       100%

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    Note 6

    A Microsoft Word document taken randomly from my hard disk was:

    • 11,540 words long
    • was 85Kb strong
    • it contained 20 pages
    • hence 577 words/page (Draper 1996 estimates 550 words/page)
    • hence 4.25 Kb/page
    • hence 1275Kb/300 page book

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    Note 7

    If for the sake of argument we assume that a medium size bookshop has a staff of 5 persons and the administration and technical staff equals additional 5 persons, and that the average salary plus 35% overheads is $35,000 p/a (a modest assumption), than annual salary costs are (10 * $35,000) $350,000.
    If we assume that the rent, electricity, insurance, cleaning, furnishing etc. of such an establishment is about 5,000/month then the overall annual costs of running a medium size shop are (12*5000 + 350,000) $410,000

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    Note 8

  • information derived from Welling (1997)
    print runs    no of pages        job costing    cost per page
               to be duplicated 
    1,400        	238                $6708           2.01 cents
    800 		267 	           $4300 	   2.01 cents 
    400 		197 		   $2975 	   3.77 cents 
    330 		154 		   $2213 	   4.35 cents 
  • The averaged cost for the four examples is 2.39 cent/page
  • According to Welling (1997), this cost can be further reduced by some 8% with the application of new (potentially costly) technology involving the installation of a high speed ethernet network for electronic submission of jobs, the purchase of a networked MicroPress Cluster Printing System, purchase of an Itek Digital Plate Maker, the purchase of job tracking/costing software.
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    Note 9
    Browning (1996:42) reports circularity of 1996-Q2 revenues and Web advertising spending:

    Netscape:  revenue US$7,755,990;  WWW advertising costs US$1,313,436 
    Infoseek:  revenue US$3,793,464;  WWW advertising costs US$1,448,080 
    Yahoo!:    revenue US$3,702,500;  WWW advertising costs US$1,279,998

    These figures suggest that on average about 26% of the online revenue is ploughed back into online advertisements

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    Note 10
    "Bibliotech began its operations in August 1984 as a centralised service to distribute University-produced publications after the closure of ANU Press. The Division now also serves other institutions and Australian government departments. It provides world-wide book and journal distribution and subscription services, publishing advice and maintains a large database of clients. Bibliotech has concentrated on expanding its customer (book purchasers) and client (book producers) bases. It currently handles 700 titles, including a comprehensive serials list, and has a market base of over 20,000 international and Australian institutions, libraries, academics, government agencies, industrial and commercial corporations, and personal customers. Since it started operations, Bibliotech has sold more than 70,000 ANU books. The catalogue includes some of the most authoritative work available on the Asia Pacific Region, including the Asia Pacific Profiles, and an annual review of economic issues in the region." (Bibliotech 1997)

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    Note 11
    The 16 million-item Bettmann Archive, one of the world's richest collection of drawings, motion pictures, and other historical arcana, was purchased in Oct 1995 by Microsoft for US$6 mln (Rapaport 1996:172) for the Corbis project ( Hence the price of an item of visual information is approx. US$2.66.

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    Note 12
    Corbis collection ( consists of approximately 1 mln digital images and its growing rate is 40,000 images/month. These are being scanned by 6 Scitext digital scanners, worth US$500,000 each, which are kept busy 24 hours a day. Average image file size is about 35 Mb. each (Rapaport 1996:172, 175).
    Hence, by Nov 1996, the estimated price of digitization was (6 * 0.5 mln)/1 mln = US$3.00 per image, excluding the cost of labour.

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    Note 13
    Draper (1996:10) calculates that unsold issues of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin (IPPA, RRP AU$25.00) and the Pacific Economic Bulletin (PEB RRP AU$17.50) represent 42% and 36% of the print runs set at 500 and 750 copies respectively.

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    Note 14
    The design of a simple subscriptions based, password controlled information system in May 1997 was costed at US$20,000 and schedule to last 2 months. Assuming 8 weeks of 5 days/week, 7hrs/day work, the design cost can be pinned at (20,000/280) US$71.5/hr

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    Note 15
    However Madsen (1996:208) also observes that it is only 10-20 of the most visible and most frequently accessed web pages which can attract a Web advertiser. On average, Web advertising concentrates on the 5% of the pages belonging to a given site.
    For comparison, in a paper magazine, a full page ad reaching 1000 upscale, highly educated viewers costs 50-100 dollars. Ads with proportionately wider audiences are accordingly more expensive. Also, most paper magazines devote 40-60% of the total page space to advertising and receive no more that 50% of their operating revenues from ads, the rest coming from subscriptions and newsstand sales. Madsen (1996:208) concludes, that there is no reason why web sites should be exempt from these market pressures, and thus, his HotWired Network (est. 1994) dedicated 30% of its web space to online advertisements.
    A variation on the paid advertisements scheme are sites which derive income not so much from displaying a banner but from directing traffic through such banner to the advertiser's information system. This of course represents a further drop in the revenue. For example, Yelland (1997) reports that an earlier 30-40% response rate to the advertisements has now dropped to 2-10% and continues to decrease. Madsen (1996:212) wrote that in 1996 Intel (microchip manufacturer) web site had a click-through rate of between 1%-6% and it was regarded by the industry to be a high one.

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    Note 16
    Financial support to online sales of information comes mainly from savings made in other areas.
    Hilvert (1997a) reports that savings from the self service aspect of the Web interface were making an impact with large software and hardware companies.

    Cisco ( has slashed live calls from 300,000 to 24,000 a month. The company found that is does US$5 mln a day in direct sales on its web site. And while not generating additional orders, the benefit was the reduction in costs to the sales chain. The company expects to save hundreds of million of dollars over the course of a year through all the ways they use the Web.

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    19. Sources of Information


      Anonymous. 1996. Banking on the Internet.
      Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 6(1), 1966, pp. 31-32

      Anonymous. 1997a.
      Web nightmare a dream run. The Australian, July 22 1997, p. 5.

      Anonymous. 1997b.
      Buying online still not popular. The Australian, June?? 1997, Data derived from Bloomberg. No information on other details of the page clipping.

      ArtServe. 1997 Department of History of Art, Faculties, ANU

      AUO. 1997a
      Australasian University Online - Business Plan.
      Version of 18 June 1997. Commercial-in-Confidence document. 70 pp.

      AUO. 1997b
      Australasian University Online - System Requirements Statement.
      Version 08. of 4 June 1997. A Telstra-in-Confidence document. 67 pp + 28 pages of appendices.

      AUO. 1997c
      Australasian University Online - Strategic Issues.
      Version of 15 June 1997. A Commercial-in-Confidence document. 20 pp.

      Banaghan, Margaret. 1997.
      Internet shapes up as a trading vehicle. BRW - Business Review Weekly, 24 February 1997. p. 50-53

      Bibliotech. 1997.
      About the Bibliotech

      Bowen, William G. 1995.
      The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Journal Storage Project - JSTOR and the Economics of Scholarly Communication

      Browning, John. 1996. What goes around, comes around.
      Wired, December 1996 pp. 42

      Buck, Peter, S. 1996. Electronic Commerce - would, could and should you use current Internet payment mechanisms?
      Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 6(2-3), 1966, pp. 5-18.

      Burke, Paul. 1993.
      Issues for Scholars. In: Mulvaney, J. & Steele, C. 1993. pp. 148-154.

      EBTI - The Electronic Buddhist Texts Initiative. 1996.

      Cameron, Julie & Clarke, Roger. 1996.
      Towards a theoretical framework for collaborative electronic commerce projects involving small and medium-sized enterprises. Proc. 9th Int'l Conf. EDI-IOS, Bled, Slovenia, 10-12 June 1996.

      Chandler, David H. 1996.
      Atlas of Military Strategy: The art, Theory and Practice of War, 1618-1878. London: Arms and Armour Press.

      Ciolek, T. Matthew. 1997a. Personal details page

      Ciolek, T. Matthew. 1997b.
      Decline in the ANU's share of Academic Resources on the Internet, 1993-1997. Unpublished notes. Internet Publications Bureau, RSPAS, ANU.
      [Numeric data on the number of electronic citations and online publications related to 8 universities (ANU, Harvard, Chicago, Yale, Stanford, Oxford, Cambridge, Heidelberg) for Aug 93, Jul 94, Mar 95, May 96 and Jun 97]

      Clarke, Roger. 1996.
      Chip-Based Payment Schemes: Stored Value Cards and Beyond. Canberra: Xamax Consultancy Pty. Ltd.

      Draper, Jessica. 1996.
      A Profile of Australian University Publishing Activity.
      [A 23 pages report by Foresight (ACT) PTY Ltd. for Australasian Universities Online Ltd., October 1996]

      Department of Employment, Education and Training (DEET). 1995.
      1996 Higher Education Financial and Publications Research Data Collections: Specifications for preparing returns, Canberra, December 1995.

      Earle, Edward M. (ed.), 1966.
      Makers of Modern Strategy - Military Thought from Machiavelli to Hitler. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

      Fist, Stewart. 1997.
      Waiting for E-commerce. LAN Magazine. June 1997. p. 22-23.

      Griffith University. 1996.
      HighWire Codebase Access Pricing. December.
      [discussions on Stanford U./Griffith U. joint electronic journals distribution system]

      Hilvert, John. 1996.
      WWW Site an expensive entity. The Australian, January 23 1996, p. 30.
      [On conclusions of the Forrester Research Report]

      Hilvert, John. 1997a.
      Internet key to business in the future: report. The Australian, June 24 1997, p. 43.
      [On conclusions of the Price Waterhouse Technology Forecast for 1997]

      Hilvert, John. 1997b.
      Online publishing a labour of love. The Australian, June 24 1997, p.??.
      [On conclusions of Peter White & Susan Ming's, La Trobe University report on "Making Money for the Web? - Business Models for Online News"]

      Horey, Jeremy. 1966. Free the Web.
      Australian Net Guide, September 1996 pp. 37 Jackson, Nick. 1997.
      Software Ecosystems. LAN Magazine. June 1997. p. 26.

      Howe, Walt. 1997. How to Lose Your Web Viewers!

      Jones, Tim. 1997.
      Playboy's Soft Launch. Syte, The Weekend Australian, July 5-6 1997. p.5
      [A 1/2 page article on current e-publishing / e-commerce developments in USA]

      Jupiter Communications. 1997.
      Market Research on the Consumer Online Industry

      Kelley, Donald R et al. (eds). 1997.Ä
      Report of the Committee on Electronic Publishing and Tenure. April 11 1997.
      Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA

      Lesk, Michael. 1997.
      Going Digital. Scientific American, March 1997. p. 50-52
      [on costs of building e-libraries in USA]

      Little, William at al. (eds.). 1973.
      The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

      MacDonnell, A.G. 1996.
      Napoleon and his Marshals. London: Prion & Macmillan and Co.

      MacLean, Ian. 1997.
      The lure of marginal costing. QIT Magazine, July 1997.

      Madsen, Hunter. 1996. Reclaim the deadzone.
      Wired, December 1996 pp. 206-220

      Manktelow, Nicole. 1997. Cookie Monsters?.
      Australian Net Guide, January 1997 pp. 74-75

      Megalogenis, George. 1997.
      The Cyber-Tax challenge. The Australian, July 14 1997, p. 9.
      [Among other things, on findings of Colin L. Richardson and Peter B. White, La Trobe Univ., 1997 report "Electronic Commerce and the Australian Taxation System: An exploratory study of six industries"]

      Mulvaney, John and Steele, Colin. (eds). 1993.
      Changes in Scholarly Communication Patterns: Australia and the Electronic Library.

      Nemzow, Martin. 1996.
      Building Cyberstores: Installation, Transaction Processing, and Management. McGraw Hill Trade

      Picozzi, Stefano. 1997. Netscape Communications Ltd.,
      Netscape Publisher Server/Merchant Software briefing to RSPAS, ANU, 2 June 1997.

      Plunkett, Sandy. 1997.
      The Internet: why Australia can't wait. BRW - Business Review Weekly, 24 February 1997. p. 36-41

      Rapaport, Richard. 1996. In his image.
      Wired, November 1996 pp. 172-175, 276-283

      Reid, Robert H. 1997.
      Architects of the Web: 1,000 Days that Built the Future of Business.
      John Wiley & Sons

      Rowley, Jennifer. 1996. Retailing and shopping on the Internet.
      Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 6(1), 1966, pp. 81-91.

      Rutkowski, Anthony-Michael. 1994a. Today's Cooperative Competitive Standards Environment for Open Information and Telecommunication Networks and the Internet Standards-Making Model

      Rutkowski, Anthony-Michael. 1994b. The Present and Future of the Internet: Five Faces

      Salisbury, David. 1996. HighWire Press a pioneer in moving scientific journals online.

      Small, Harry. 1996. Enforcement of intellectual property rights on the Internet.
      Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 6(1), 1966, pp. 44-47.

      Smith, Graham J.J. 1996. Setting up a Web site - managing the legal risks
      Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 6(2-3), 1966, pp. 24-30.

      Welling, Lorraine. 1997. University Printing and Duplicating Service, ANU.
      A Memorandum of 16 Jun 1997, to Peter Grimshaw, Business Manager, Joint Schools. 3 pp.

      Williams, Margaret. 1997.
      Limit on data-reuse. The Australian, June 17 1997, p. 34.

      Wood, Crispin. 1997.
      Betting the bank on an electronic future. BRW - Business Review Weekly, 24 February 1997. p. 46-48

      Yelland, Philippa. 1997a.
      Web profit backlash looms. The Australian, June 17, 1997, p. 8.

      Yelland, Philippa. 1997b.
      Printers face cyber-challenge. The Australian, July 22, 1997, p. 5

      Yesil, Magdalena. 1997.
      Creating the Virtual Store: Taking Your Web Site from Browsing to Buying. New York: John Wiley

      Young, Jeffrey R. 1997.
      Stanford-Based HighWire Press Transforms the Publication of Scientific Journals. The Chronicle of Higher Education, May 16, 1997. pp A21-A22

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      (Meetings with the persons listed below were held during the period Feb-Jul 97. Names are listed in alphabetic order):

      • Ann Andrews, Publications Officer, Prehistory, RSPAS, ANU
      • Helen Brennan, BiblioTech, ANU.
      • Roger Clarke, Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd., Canberra
      • Dr Robin Erskine, Director, IT Services, ANU
      • Michael Evans, Deputy Librarian, ANU
      • Prof Michael Greenhalgh, Art History, Faculties, ANU
      • Yvonne Heslop, Project Officer, IT Services, ANU
      • Pauline Hore, Business Manager, RSSS/Library, ANU
      • Kirkby Robert, Telstra Multimedia, Melbourne
      • Elizabeth Kingdon, Asia-Pacific Magazine, RSPAS, ANU
      • Mira Kwasik, RSPAS Bookshop Online, RSPAS, ANU
      • Paul Macpherson, Library, ANU
      • Dr Bob Moles, AUO Australasian Universities Online Ltd., Canberra
      • Michelle Mousdale, IT Services, RSPAS, ANU
      • Dr Malcolm Pettigrove, CEDAM, ANU
      • Picozzi Stefano, Netscape Communications Ltd., Sydney
      • Reid Mick, Telstra Multimedia, Melbourne
      • Prof Merle Ricklefs, Director, RSPAS, ANU
      • Colin Steele, Head Librarian, ANU
      • Carolyn Sweeney, ASARC, RSPAS, ANU
      • Maree Tait, NCDS, RSPAS, ANU
      • Tika Wilson, NCDS, RSPAS, ANU
      • Douglas Whaite, IT Services, RSSS, ANU
      • Greg Young, Asian Studies, Faculties, ANU

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    Copyright (c) 1997 by T. Matthew Ciolek.


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